Anaximander (611 – 546 BCE)

Miletus in Asia Minor


  • The universe arouse out of an infinite “Boundless“, which is none of the elements (earth, fire, water), but something intermediate, mass of undifferentiated material.
  • In the beginning, the “Boundless” or “Infinite” was whole. But it contains “motion“, which causes the breakdown of the whole.
    • The breakdown of the whole results in the separation of hot (fire) and cold (earth, water) and the world was generated.



  • Justice is achieved in nature by a process of a return of all things to their origins.

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