Confucious (c. 551 ~ c.479 BCE)

Kong Gui (孔丘), Kongzi (孔子), Kong Fuzi (孔夫子)


  • Ren (Jen, 仁)  is the ideal relationship among human beings and the perfect vitue.
  • Ren consists of 5 basic virtues: seriousness, generosity, sincerity, diligence and kindness.
  • Man is close to Ren by nature but his action must be guided by Li (禮).
  • The ideal man (cultured and ordered) practices Ren in accordance with Li. He seeks the Tao(道), the right way.


  • The Confucian Tao(道) is different from the Tao of mystic Taoism. The Confucian Tao is the way to an ideal society and government, and to be a righteous man.

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