Heraclitus (c. 540 ~ c.480 BCE)
- Everything is Fire, in that everything is in an eternal process of change. Fire is a symbolic process of constant change, rather than a basic substance.
- All things occur in accordance with the Logos (word, reason, rationale). By Logos, everything is one.
- Pantheism: God (Logos) embraces the whole world.
- The world is characterized by opposites and their constant interplay.
- The approach to learn many things (aggregate of opposites) is mistaken. Opposites do not exist independently. They are unified by their interdependence and exist in a state of constant strife.
- Failure to understand or apprehend Logos is the root of all evil.
- Universal reason is common to all of us and something that everybody is guided by.