Heraclitus (c. 540 ~ c.480 BCE)

Ephesus, Ionia


  • Everything is Fire, in that everything is in an eternal process of change. Fire is a symbolic process of constant change, rather than a basic substance.
  • All things occur in accordance with the Logos (word, reason, rationale). By Logos, everything is one.
    • Pantheism: God (Logos) embraces the whole world.
  • The world is characterized by opposites and their constant interplay.
    • The approach to learn many things (aggregate of opposites) is mistaken. Opposites do not exist independently. They are unified by their interdependence and exist in a state of constant strife.


  • Failure to understand or apprehend Logos is the root of all evil.
  • Universal reason is common to all of us and something that everybody is guided by.


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