Empedocles (c. 490 ~ c 430 BCE)
Akragas in Sicily


  • The idea of single basic substance must be rejected.
  • Empedocles distinguishes between substances and forces.
    • The nature consists of 4 elements: Air, Earth, Water, and Fire
      • These 4 substances are eternal and not changed; Basically nothing changes.
      • The changes that we sense are the combination (love) and separation (strife) of basic elements.
    • There are two forces at work in nature.
      • Love binds elements together.
      • Strife separates elements.
  • Particular things exists in the two intermediate stages at the cycle created by alternating domination of love and strife.

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