Socrates (c. 470 ~ 399 BCE)
Plato (428 ~ 348 BCE)
Ideas & Nature
- Form: What is eternal and immutable is not a basic substance (element) but an idea.
- Everything tangible in nature changes in time.
- All ideas are arranged in the ideal world in order; the highest idea (idea of perfect goodness) being at the top.
- In the material world, the idea is realized (materialized).
- The material world is not real or true; it is an impression of the real idea upon matter.
- World of Senses: We have incomplete knowledge by using our senses. Everything is changing and nothing is permanent.
- World of Ideas: We can have true knowledge by using our reason.
- All making is a kind of imitation (Mimesis).
- Art presupposes a knowing and a making
- Knowing what to be aimed (the end) and how to achieve the end (the means)
- A fundamental principal which makes act of making Art is “measure“.
- A measure is the determination of appropriate relationship between knowledge and making
- with each other (with an opposite) -> specific
- with the mean, the fit, the Idea, the truth -> universal
- Imitation in Art
- Good Imitation: Reveals the Idea; Simple and harmonious with the Idea
- Bad Imitation: Imitation of imitation; (Idea -> Matter -> Representation)
- The source of artistic creativity
- The necessary condition of creativity is inspiration, enthusiasm, or madness; requires devotion.