Socrates, Plato

Socrates, Plato

  • Socrates (c. 470 ~ 399 BCE)
  • Plato (428 ~ 348 BCE)

Ideas & Nature

  • Form: What is eternal and immutable is not a basic substance (element) but an idea.
  • Everything tangible in nature changes in time.
  • All ideas are arranged in the ideal world in order; the highest idea (idea of perfect goodness) being at the top.
  • In the material world, the idea is realized (materialized).
    • The material world is not real or true; it is an impression of the real idea upon matter.

Knowledge

  • World of Senses: We have incomplete knowledge by using our senses. Everything is changing and nothing is permanent.
  • World of Ideas: We can have true knowledge by using our reason.

Politics

Body Soul Virtue State
Head Reason Wisdom Rulers (Philosophers)
Chest Will Courage Auxiliaries
Abdomen Appetite Temperance Laborers

Aesthetics

  • Art
    • All making is a kind of imitation (Mimesis).
    • Art presupposes a knowing and a making
      • Knowing what to be aimed (the end) and how to achieve the end (the means)
  • Measure
    • A fundamental principal which makes act of making Art is “measure“.
    • A measure is the determination of appropriate relationship between knowledge and making
    • Measurement
      • with each other (with an opposite) -> specific
      • with the mean, the fit, the Idea, the truth -> universal
  • Imitation in Art
    • Good Imitation: Reveals the Idea; Simple and harmonious with the Idea
    • Bad Imitation: Imitation of imitation; (Idea -> Matter -> Representation)
  • The source of artistic creativity
    • The necessary condition of creativity is inspiration, enthusiasm, or madness; requires devotion.

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