Aristotle (384 ~ 322 BCE)
Stagira, Chalkidice, Northern Greece

Ideas & Nature

  • Ideas (Forms) are not outside of matters but in things.
  • Sense world is not a mere copy of the real world of ideas. It is the real world.
  • 4 Causes
    • Formal Cause: the form (idea) to be realized
    • Material Cause: matter
    • Efficient(Moving) Cause: the tools or method
    • Final Cause: the purpose or end
  • It is required to start the movement (change): Unmoved Mover/First Cause


  • Art is a capacity to contrive the coming-into-being of ends determined by reason. The envisioned end determines the appropriate means for its realization.
  • The good art work has a perfection of form and the elements exhibit symmetry and harmony.
  • Even though Aristotle acknowledges the criticism of arts of Plato, Art in general is valuable because it repairs deficiencies in nature. Even tragedy can be justifiable due to its moral contribution.
    • Plato thinks imitative arts (especially tragedy) feed the passion and mislead people who seek truth.

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