Gilles Deleuze (1925 ~ 1995), France Felix Guattari (1930 ~ 1992), France
Continuity of the Sensible and the Intelligible
Reversal of Plato
From Plato, Philosophy seeks the essence (general, intelligible) from experiences (particular, sensible). This discontinuity is the enemy of metaphysics.
Discontinuityis based on the good sense (one direction) and the common sense (stable entities). Philosophy has tended to amplify discontinuity.
Continuity has no direction and is not stable.
Tree is the symbol of discontinuity. Rhizomeis continuity.
Trees reveal the deep structure but Rhizomes are just the messy reality (no direction, no beginning or end)
Trees are connected based on hierarchy. Rhizomes, which are heterogeneous, multiply connections and creates new something.
An assemblageis the interconnection of heterogeneous multiples.
Language is an example. Language is a heterogeneous mixture of words, power, people, and geography. There is no discontinuous points between components.
Psychoanalysis and Schizoanalysis (Anti-Oedipus)
Freud found Rhizomes in the unconscious but was determined to see a tree (discontinous essence which points to a single point, Oedipus).
Deleuze and Giattari propose Schizoanalysis(eruption from every assemblage).
Unconscious is multiplicity, which are statistical aggregates.
Multiplicity cannot be reduced to linear causality but only be treated accordingly to statistical probability. (An example of multiplicity is weather prediction)
Body Without Organs
Body Without Organs is on which multiplicities circulates. It is not a space but the continuum of life itself.
Thinking, Technology, Simulacrum
Traditionally, technology is added on to life. Thinking human life (think, remember, imagine) is given by default and technology is an extension.
The idea of technology as a supplement (secondary to living) produces a limited understanding of virtual.
The simulacrum is not a secondary image of life, but life (reality) itself.
The question is neither “what can we know?” nor “how accurate are our senses?”. Life is as an active imaging, not as a passive perception.
Thinking delays immediate relation of brains to living matter. Thinking acts upon the virtual images and allows the images in all their complexity and difference.
Consciousness is a slowing down or delay of thinking, which allows the past to be carried over into the present.
Technology allows us to create new connections and to maximize our own potential.
The active creation of concepts and not the acceptance of existing ideas as good or common sense.
Capitalism is both a radical deterritorialization – positive possibility – (anything is allowed to change) and reterritorialization – negative possibility – (all changes are related to a single maxim, money)
Privatization is the formation of flow that has no specific meaning or no identity (the same whether it is mine or yours). Time is privatized in Capitalism.