Deleuze & Guattari

  • GILLES DELEUZE (1925 ~ 1995), FRANCE
  • FÉLIX GUATTARI (1930 ~ 1992), FRANCE

Gilles Deleuze, a philosopher, and Félix Guattari, a psychoanalyst, wrote a number of works together. Their collaborations marked a significant progress of post-structuralism.


  • Reversal of Plato
  • From Plato, Philosophy seeks the essence (general, intelligible) from experiences (particular, sensible). This discontinuity is the enemy of metaphysics.
  • Discontinuity is based on the good sense (one direction) and the common sense (stable entities). Philosophy has tended to amplify discontinuity.
  • Continuity has no direction and is not stable.


  • The tree is the symbol of discontinuity. Rhizome is continuity.
  • Trees reveal the deep structure, but Rhizomes are just the messy reality (no direction, no beginning or end)
  • Trees are connected based on hierarchy. Rhizomes, which are heterogeneous, multiply connections, and creates new something.


  • An assemblage is the interconnection of heterogeneous multiples.
  • An example is language. Language is a heterogeneous mixture of words, power, people, and geography. There are no discontinuous points between components.


  • Freud found Rhizomes in the unconscious but was determined to see a tree (discontinuous essence, which points to a single point, Oedipus).
  • Deleuze and Guattari propose Schizoanalysis (eruption from every assemblage).
  • Unconscious is multiplicity, which are statistical aggregates.
  • Multiplicity cannot be reduced to linear causality but only be treated accordingly to statistical probability. (An example of multiplicity is weather prediction.)


  • Body Without Organs is on which multiplicities circulate. It is not a space but the continuum of life itself.


  • Traditionally, technology is added to life. Thinking human life (think, remember, imagine) is given by default, and technology is an extension.
  • The idea of technology as a supplement (secondary to living) produces a limited understanding of virtual.
  • The simulacrum is not a secondary image of life, but life (reality) itself.
  • The question is neither “what can we know?” nor “how accurate are our senses?”. Life is as an active imaging, not as a passive perception.
  • Thinking delays the immediate relation of brains to living matter. Thinking acts upon the virtual images and allows the images in all their complexity and difference.
  • Consciousness is a slowing down or delay of thinking, which allows the past to be carried over into the present.
  • Technology allows us to create new connections and to maximize our own potential.


  • The active creation of concepts is important.
  • Do not accept existing ideas as good or common sense.


  • Capitalism is both a radical deterritorialization.
    • positive possibility – (anything is allowed to change) and reterritorialization
    • negative possibility – (all changes are related to a single maxim, money)
  • Privatization is the formation of flow with neither specific meaning nor identity (the same, whether it is mine or yours).
  • Time is privatized in Capitalism.

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