- GILLES DELEUZE (1925 ~ 1995), FRANCE
- FÉLIX GUATTARI (1930 ~ 1992), FRANCE
Gilles Deleuze, a philosopher, and Félix Guattari, a psychoanalyst, wrote a number of works together. Their collaborations marked a significant progress of post-structuralism.
CONTINUITY OF THE SENSIBLE AND THE INTELLIGIBLE
- Reversal of Plato
- From Plato, Philosophy seeks the essence (general, intelligible) from experiences (particular, sensible). This discontinuity is the enemy of metaphysics.
- Discontinuity is based on the good sense (one direction) and the common sense (stable entities). Philosophy has tended to amplify discontinuity.
- Continuity has no direction and is not stable.
- The tree is the symbol of discontinuity. Rhizome is continuity.
- Trees reveal the deep structure, but Rhizomes are just the messy reality (no direction, no beginning or end)
- Trees are connected based on hierarchy. Rhizomes, which are heterogeneous, multiply connections, and creates new something.
- An assemblage is the interconnection of heterogeneous multiples.
- An example is language. Language is a heterogeneous mixture of words, power, people, and geography. There are no discontinuous points between components.
PSYCHOANALYSIS AND SCHIZOANALYSIS (ANTI-OEDIPUS)
- Freud found Rhizomes in the unconscious but was determined to see a tree (discontinuous essence, which points to a single point, Oedipus).
- Deleuze and Guattari propose Schizoanalysis (eruption from every assemblage).
- Unconscious is multiplicity, which are statistical aggregates.
- Multiplicity cannot be reduced to linear causality but only be treated accordingly to statistical probability. (An example of multiplicity is weather prediction.)
BODY WITHOUT ORGANS
- Body Without Organs is on which multiplicities circulate. It is not a space but the continuum of life itself.
THINKING, TECHNOLOGY, SIMULACRUM
- Traditionally, technology is added to life. Thinking human life (think, remember, imagine) is given by default, and technology is an extension.
- The idea of technology as a supplement (secondary to living) produces a limited understanding of virtual.
- The simulacrum is not a secondary image of life, but life (reality) itself.
- The question is neither “what can we know?” nor “how accurate are our senses?”. Life is as an active imaging, not as a passive perception.
- Thinking delays the immediate relation of brains to living matter. Thinking acts upon the virtual images and allows the images in all their complexity and difference.
- Consciousness is a slowing down or delay of thinking, which allows the past to be carried over into the present.
- Technology allows us to create new connections and to maximize our own potential.
- The active creation of concepts is important.
- Do not accept existing ideas as good or common sense.
- Capitalism is both a radical deterritorialization.
- positive possibility – (anything is allowed to change) and reterritorialization
- negative possibility – (all changes are related to a single maxim, money)
- Privatization is the formation of flow with neither specific meaning nor identity (the same, whether it is mine or yours).
- Time is privatized in Capitalism.