Science is a systematic and organized method of studying nature based on observing facts and verifying results.
Here is the most widely accepted concept of the scientific method.
The scientific method is based on
- Problems and Questions
- Research what is already known
- Find the patterns and trend
- Propose a hypothesis
- Tentative explanation of the problem
- Must be falsifiable – can be possibly shown to be false
- Non-falsifiable statements cannot be a hypothesis (e.x. ‘God exists.’ or ‘Coffee tastes better than tea.’)
- Experiment – collect data and perform tests
- Analyze the collected data and test results
- Draw a conclusion
- If the data does not support the hypothesis, modify or discard the hypothesis
- If the data support the hypothesis, propose a theory.
A theory is a scientifically based explanation of the questions of nature at the time. A theory is subject to change at any time due to a new discovery or technical improvements.
The idea of science is quite straight-forward, but the reality is not as simple as that.
Let’s think over the realm of atoms and particles. The most basic condition of science, the repeatability, does not apply anymore. You get a different result at each experiment, such as the location of a particle in motion. We only guess the result statistically. So is quantum mechanics not a science? The exact definition of science might belong to philosophy. But we need to be flexible to accept how science works.