Søren Kierkegaard, (1813 ~ 1855), Denmark;
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775 ~ 1854)
- Schelling tried to see mind and body in one.
- All of the world (Nature, mind + body) is the expression of one Absolute or World Spirit.
- Nature is an organism, or a unity, which is constantly developing its innate potentialities.
George Berkeley (1685 ~ 1753)
- Philosophy, science, and pervasive materialism became a threat to Christianity.
- Berkeley denied existence of Material World beyond the human mind.
David Hume (1711 ~ 1776)
Edinburgh, Scotland, Great Britain
- Two types of perceptions
- Impressions: Immediate Sensation
- Ideas: Recollection of Impressions
- What determines what we do is not Reason but Sentiments (Feeling).
Baruch Spinoza (1632 ~1677)
- God is all. All is in God.
- There is only ONE substance (God/Nature)
- Humans recognize two of many God’s qualities or manifestations: Thought and Extension
- The various phenomena of the world are modes of two attributes of God/Nature.
- Human Life is subject to the universal laws of nature.
St. Thomas Aquinas (1225 ~ 1274)
Born in Roccasecca, Sicily
- Universals are real (- realists -), exist independently of any individual object
- Matter makes different one object from another. But they contain the universal idea.
- The World (Nature) is a union of universals (forms) and matter.
- God created the world out of nothing; God was the cause of everything.
- Creation did not happen at one time. Creation is going on all the time; God continually brings ideas and matter together to produce new objects.
- There is no conflict between Reason and Christianity.
- Reason and Theology reinforce each other.
- Bible teaches us how God wants us to live.
- God had also given us a conscience (reason), so man can distinguish between right and wrong.
born in Thagaste, Numidia (modern-day Souk Ahras, Algeria)
354 ~ 430
- Try to reconcile Christianity with Greek philosophy
- “Ideas” of Plato and “Forms” of Aristotle became God
- Dualism: God and Evil, Light and Darkness, Spirit and Matter
- Everything is God’s creation and must follow His laws and will.
- Matter was created by God out of nothing (void) according to the ideas and forms in God’s mind.
- God’s creation is only good.
- Evil comes from mankind’s disobedience