[Statistics 101] (2) Displaying Data

There are various ways to show your data to others. It is important how to organize and process data, but it is vital to show your data in a clear format so that your audience can get the idea right away. It is always a better idea to use present your data graphically using tables and charts.

Numerical DataCategorical Data
Pie Charts
Bar Graphs
Time Charts (Line Graphs)

Frequency Table

  • A tabulation of the values in a sample
  • Interval or group: division of data
  • Frequency: the count of occurrences of values

Relative Frequency Table

  • Relative frequency is the proportion of all given values in an interval.


  • A graphical representation of the distribution of data or a frequency table

Stem-And-Leaf Diagram

  • Quantitative data (usually sorted) in a graphical format
  • Determine what the stems will represent and what the leaves will represent
  • Typically, the leaf contains the last digit of the number, and the stem contains all of the other digits.

Here is the example of the stem-and-leaf diagram.

The height of 10 students are like this in centimeters:
178, 159, 166, 175, 182, 162, 173, 175, 172, 178

In this example, the stem can be the first 2 digits and the leaf will be the last digit. Also, when you specify the leaf values, you need to specify the repeated values.

[Note] In most graphs, an independent variable goes on the horizontal axis (x-axis), and a dependent variable goes on the vertical axis (y-axis). But the bar graph is an exception. In it, the vertical axis holds the independent variable.

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