[Philosophy] Aristotle

With Plato, Aristotle’s views shaped the medieval scholarship and will be the base of western philosophy. His influences are not limited to philosophy and metaphysics but also extend to physical sciences, logics, religions, and ethics.

  • 384 BC ~ 322 BC
  •  Stagira, Chalcidice (Born) -> Athens -> Euboea, Macedonian Empire


Unlike the Atomists, who thought the world was mechanical, Aristotle believed the world was one of purpose, not of mere chance.

Teleology (from τέλος, telos, ‘end’, ‘aim’, or ‘goal,’ and λόγος, logos, ‘explanation’ or ‘reason’) is a reason or an explanation for something which serves as a function of its end, its purpose, or its goal, as opposed to something which serves as a function of its cause.


The universe is the union of matter and idea (form). Aristotle thought matter constantly seeks to realize different forms or ideas. To explain this progress, Aristotle said every object has four causes.

  • Formal cause: the form or idea to become, essence
  • Material cause: matter,
  • Efficient or moving cause: tools or agency
  • Final or end cause: purpose or goal

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