Piketty: CAPITAL in the Twenty-First Century (2013);
Chang: Bad Samaritans; The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism (2008);
Friedman: Capitalism and Freedom(1962);
Chomsky: Profit Over People; Neoliberalism And Global Order (1999);
- Title: Cinema I
- Author: Gilles Deleuze
- Published: 1983
- Title: Cinema II
- Author: Gilles Deleuze
- Published: 1985
- Cinema is a technology that frees human from what it actually is.
- Cinematic distribution of images have made us see more but perceive/think less. Cinema reduces the future to already experienced forms (cliché or stereotypes).
- We do not apply philosophy to cinema, nor use cinema as an example of philosophical thinking. When we think through cinema, the life and out philosophical thinking will be transformed.
- The history of though is cinematic. Life has evolved through the production of relations (new mode of thinking) among images.
- Traditionally, essence is regarded stable and timeless – what remains the same through time.
- For Deleuze, there is not stable entities, there is only time and the creation of difference. Therefore, essence is something that creates difference.
- The essence of cinema is not what it generally is or the features all films share. What allows to produce new forms is the essence of cinema.
- When Hollywood reuses the same form of movies again and again, it does not actualize the essence (potential) of cinema.
- Premodern idea of movement: it is the regulated transition from one form to another as a privileged instance in time. It is oriented in advance to what it ought to achieve.
- Modern idea of movement: it is not a special instance but any-instance-whatever. Passage is not determined in advance.
- By presenting images, the movement-image allows us to construct events according to the sequences of purposes, of natural consequences, or of changing situations.
- Each movement (action) alters a situation, alters relations, and alters the whole.
- Cinematic styles or techniques indirectly connects each movement to an open whole.
- Montage presents movement not as moving a single body in space, but as connecting different movements to a dynamic whole.
- In the changing whole, time is not a series of equivalent moment, but a whole duration of dynamics.
- Movement-Images are not yet direct images of time. We still see changes from one movement from another.
- Perception-Image: things (subject seeing an object)
- Action-Image: verbs (an action transforms a situation)
- Affection-Image: qualities (an absorption of movement by inactive but receptive body)
- In Time-Image, cinema is not a copy of a human-eye (perception-image) nor a series of actual movements (action-image).
- Time-Image creates its own movements and its own time.
- Title: Looking Awry – An Introduction to Jacques Lacan through Popular Culture
- Author: Slavoj Zizek
- Published: 1992
- Publisher: The MIT Press
- ISBN: 978-0-262-74015-9
- Title: The Myth of Sisyphus
- Author: Albert Camus
- Published: 1955
- Publisher: Vintage International (1991)
- ISBN-10: 0679733736
- ISBN-13: 978-0-679-73373-7
In this essay, Camus asserted that the fundamental question of philosophy is suicide; whether life is worth living or not.
The starting point is the feelings of absurd. The absurdity of life has two faces: Your life is absurd and there is no meaning in life. But this lack of essence (fate) ensures the freedom of choice and action. We are not destined to anything.
Reason plays an important role here. Reflection of life lets you discover the absurdity of life continuously. We are kind of doomed. But this reason lets you revolt against the absurdity. Therefore, consciousness is both bless and a curse.
Camus insisted that suicide is not an answer to the meaningless life. It is an escape from the reality. He asked us to confront the absurd (revolt) courageously. There is another type of suicide; Hope or Political Suicide. Hope means religious salvation; bad faith; to negate life’s absurdity with nostalgia, romanticism, and association with the divine. Hope of another life is the trickery of those who live not for life itself but for some ideas.
We can find some examples of absurd lifestyles. Absurd men acknowledge the absurdity of life and act accordingly. “Quantity of experience” comes before “Quality of it”. Don Huan did not seek the true lover; each love was as important as the other. Each experience is the same yet so various.
Sisypus is another absurd man for Camus. Sisypus’s absurd act of moving a rock becomes making sense when each act is not repetitive any more.